History of The Tomato Fruit


The story of the tomato plant is a tale of three continents; South America, Europe, and North America. The European part of the story began in the 1500s, when Spanish and Portuguese explorers returned to their respective countries with exotic crops, including tomatoes. Here is the short history of the tomato fruit.

Although it is clear that Lycopersicon esculentum originated in South America, the tomato was most likely initially cultivated and plants selected based on fruit size in Mexico.

The first tomato seeds https://scagriconsult.com

The first tomato seeds…

As a result, once Cortez conquered Mexico City in 1519, the first tomato seeds were brought to Europe from Mexico. It was not until 1533 that the Spaniards invaded Peru and Ecuador.

Thomas Jefferson grew the tomato after it was introduced to the United States and presented it to the table.

In an attempt to bring the tomato into the diet of the poor in Alabama, whose diets were severely lacking in vitamins, George Washington Carver planted and recommended the fruit.

The majority of tomato plants cultivated today are hybrids, which are the product of crossbreeding to create certain plant traits like stress resistance, insect resistance, disease resistance, and fruit features such as uniform size and coloration, longer shelf life, and firmness, as well as disease resistance.

You might want to read this: How and Why Important is Soil Testing?

Open-pollinated varieties

Aside from hybrids, there are “open-pollinated varieties,” which include Heirloom varieties, which were the major kinds produced prior to the introduction of hybrids in the mid-1940s.

Seed from open-pollinated types may be kept and grown into the same plant, while seed from hybrid fruits will not grow into the same plant as the one from which it was taken.

The tomato fruit did not become a prominent meal until the twentieth century when it was consumed directly or as a component in a variety of foods. Today, per capita intake of fresh tomato fruit is increasing as more information about the health advantages of including it in one’s diet becomes available.

Today, the average American consumes about 90 pounds of tomato as fruit and tomato-containing products.

Tomato is one of the most demanded garden fruit grown in the United States. Commercially, China is the larger producer, followed by United States, Turkey, India, and Italy. California accounts for 90% of U.S. production and 35% of the world’s production.

In the United States, tomato fruit production has a farm value of over 2 billion dollars.

Tomato fruit production data is being reported yearly from 144 countries. In the last ten years, the most crucial development has been increasing greenhouse-grown tomatoes from significant production hubs in the Netherlands, Spain, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.

History of The Tomato Fruit https://scagriconsult.com

Free trade agreements among nations have allowed for the ease of movement of fruit from country to country.

Accompanying this increased movement has been the shift away from the production of beefsteak (large) fruit to smaller, such as cocktail, cherry, grape, and Roma. Consumers’Consumers’ major priority is taste. This has contributed to a growing demand for smaller, more flavorful fruits.

Based on the perception of high-flavored fruit, Heirloom varieties are attracting increasing attention from both home gardeners and small commercial growers for marketing in local farmer markets.

You might want to see this: Advantages of Drip Irrigation in Agriculture | No Weeding, No-Till

History of The Tomato Fruit – Heirloom Varieties

The term “Heirloom varieties” was coined in the 1990s and related to those tomato varieties that were commonly grown before the 1950s after hybrid tomato varieties were first introduced in 1945. Heirloom varieties are more attractive to consumers since they come in various fruit sizes and skin colors (black, purple, brown, yellow, orange, pink, bicolor).

Fruit-on-the-vine (TOV), often known as “cluster tomatoes,” is becoming a popular fruit in the United States. Fruit is being packaged in the most appealing way possible by growers. The consumer is provided with bright red or dazzling, yellow-colored fruit that is free of blemishes.

In addition, pesticide-free and/or organically grown fruit is also gaining preference among some consumers.

Gourmet chefs are searching for a wide range of colors, sizes (from very huge to grape or cherry kinds), and flavor qualities in their fruits. Fast food chains require tomato fruit of uniform size, shape, and color. In contrast, gourmet chefs require various fruit colors, dimensions (from very large to grape or cherry types), and flavor characteristics.

Tomatoes can be roughly classified into 7 groups:

  • Slicing or globe – for processing and fresh eating.
  • Beefsteak – large fruit for use in sandwiches
  • Oxheart – range in size up to beefsteak
  • Plum or paste – high solid content for use in sauce and paste
  • Pear – pear-shaped, for rich gourmet paste
  • Cherry – small and oblong, a variation of the plum tomatoes
  • Grape – a smaller and oblong variation of the plum tomato for use in salads
  • Campari – bigger than cherry, smaller than plum, sweet, and known for their juiciness, low in acidity, and lacks of mealiness.

Advantages of Drip Irrigation in Agriculture | No Weeding, No-Till

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Weeding is the chore that gardeners dislike the most.

Drip irrigation can help reduce both the number of weeds in a garden and the amount of work it takes to pull any weeds that remain. Here are the advantages of drip irrigation in agriculture and small-scale gardening.

Wet area

Drip irrigation drippers wet a small area around the stem or crown of each plant. The size of the wet surface area will vary depending on the soil type. The wet spot will be small in sandy soils and more significant in clay soils. All the rest of the garden surface stays dry and inhibits the growth of weeds and the sprouting of new weeds.

Unlike sprinklers that irrigate both crops and weeds equally well, drip irrigation can help keep the garden dry and can reduce the number of weeds you have to pull.


Drip irrigation does not compact the soil. The slow drop-by-drop flow of water is much gentler than many sprinklers’ “hard rain” effect.

Another source of compaction is puddles. Sprinklers often create puddles in clay soils, and when the soupy puddles dry, the earth dries with a hard crust which contributes to compaction. With drip irrigation, puddle compaction is avoided.

Compaction of any kind makes it more difficult to pull weeds. With most sprinklers, you have little choice. Compaction will occur between the puddles and the hard impact of the large drops on the soil surface. But with drip irrigation, you avoid compaction and have the opportunity to go no-till.

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If you till a garden once and use drip irrigation, you may never have to till the soil again in a season. The trick to making this work is to never walk on the garden or drive on it or do anything that may compact the soil. If you kneel on the soil, use a wide board under your knee.

Of course, you need paths. Tillage-free means that paths will always be the same paths and may be made permanent.

The other trick is to never use a rototiller, which often breaks the soil into too fine a tilth. Use a plow and disc instead, or turn the soil by hand if possible. The very fine tilth from a rototiller will compact under its own weight since the fine particles are quite like flour.

Plants actually prefer a coarse tilth. The spaces between small clods of the earth hold more air which is vital to the root system.

Rototiller use in agriculture https://scagriconsult.com

Rototillers chop weed stems into small pieces, and each piece can root and grow. With no-tillage, you avoid the extra work of pulling all those small rooted pieces. When you pull a weed, it’s gone. Over time, the number of weeds will go down unless the wind carries weed seeds from outside the garden.

Most garden soils will stay loose and full of air for years if not compacted. To prepare the soil in the spring, use a garden fork. Plunge it in and rock the handle back and forth to loosen the earth. There is no need to turn the soil over. Rake the surface flat and break up any large clods, and you are ready to plant. Add compost each year to build the soil.

advantages of drip irrigation in agriculture https://scagriconsult.com
Drip irrigation

Tillage-free also conserves water. Since you are not cultivating the soil by turning it repeatedly in the spring, there is less evaporation. And through the summer, fluffy non-compacted soil will hold more moisture than densely compacted soil. Use a mulch on the surface for even better results.


Worms will thrive in a garden if they are not chopped in pieces by a rototiller and where there is no compacted soil to make their work harder. (No, they do not survive being cut in half) They will do much of the hard work of keeping the soil “plowed up” for you.


The result of using no-tillage methods and drip irrigation is that the soil stays loose and full of air which makes it easier to pull any weeds that remain. Evaporation from the soil surface is reduced, and the soil has more capacity to retain moisture.

How and Why Important is Soil Testing?

reliable soil testing in turkey by agricultural consultant https://scagriconsult.com

You need to take regular soil testing ad the pH level of your soil fluctuates wildly, even on a day-to-day scale. Mother Nature is constantly affecting your soil’s pH level through rainfall or a lack thereof. So, it is crucial to test your soil regularly to ensure that its pH level is compatible with your crop growing objectives.

Soil testing progress. Turkey agricultural consultant and consultancy firms for soil analysis https://scagriconsult.com
Samples for soil testing from different points of the land

Soil Testing for PH Levels

When measuring a soil’s pH level, it is important to take samples from various points in your garden or farm. The pH level of one particular small plot of soil can vary depending on the presence of rocks or other elements. Measure the pH level at various points on your land and take the average of all of them to understand your soil’s overall pH level better.

You might want to see that: Best regions for buying agricultural land in Turkey

Ways of Soil Analysis

There are a few different ways to test pH levels in the soil.

  1. One of the most expensive yet the most accurate way of soil analysis in Turkey and most of the other countries is to use an electronic pH meter. This is a device inserted into the ground and gives an accurate digital reading. 
  2. If you want to do things a little more old-school way, you can use litmus paper. The disadvantage of this approach is that it doesn’t give you an accurate pH reading. It merely tells you whether your soil is acidic or alkaline. 
  3. Another method that produces the same two-toned result is the use of a barium sulfate testing kit. With this method, you mix a sample of soil with the barium sulfate and add water which changes color based on the soil’s acidity or alkalinity.
  4. Moreover, if you don’t want to do the work yourself or don’t have time for it, you can hire an expert for your land’s soil analysis and further advice related to the results. If you are working with an agricultural consultant, he will accomplish all the tasks for you and deliver a report regarding the following steps. 

Advanced organic gardeners can make a solid educated guess regarding the pH level of their soil by making observations. The presence of yellowing leaves on plants is familiar with soil with too high of a pH level.

You might want to see this: Are you eligible to buy agricultural land in Turkey?

The presence of the types of plants themselves also indicates your soil’s pH level; most plants can only grow when the soil is within a particular range on the pH scale. For example, the presence of a heather plant indicates a pH level of around 4.5 to 5.0 since this plant cannot thrive outside of these acidic conditions.

If you need your land to be analyzed, reliable soil testing, and further recommendations, you can contact us anytime.

4 Best Regions For Buying Farmlands in Turkey

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Turkey is a great country with its geographical location, climate, and rich soil quality. Today, I’ll try to explain the best regions for buying farmlands in Turkey.

If you have been planning to invest in agricultural lands in Turkey, you are on the right path. Yet, it’s time-consuming work to decide which region is the best one for a good profit and high revenue.

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Best Regions For Buying Farmlands in Turkey

Turkey is a significant country thanks to its multi-climate and rich soil resources, namely its ‘geographical location.’ You can easily establish Orchard facilities with various product types as different climatic zones are seen and experienced in different areas of the country. It is an ideal country for investors coming from abroad.

And considering the USD/TRY exchange rates, we can assume that you’ll find the cheapest land for sale in Europe.

You can see the article that includes detailed information with its map about which fruit variety can be grown in what part of the country.

4 Regions for buying agricultural land in Turkey

We can examine the country in 4 different sections as Marmara, Aegean, Central Anatolia, and the Mediterranean regions in terms of agricultural farmlands. This distinction doesn’t mean that fruit cultivation cannot be done in other regions of the country, since these are the four regions with an increasing trend, where the establishment of orchards with high value-added products has successfully been achieved in recent years.

Especially in Manisa in the Aegean Region, a part of Balıkesir, and in Konya in the Central Anatolia Region, the orchard establishment has begun to be accomplished more frequently.

The advantage of these two cities, especially in the Aegean Region, in terms of climate and land prices, attracted the attention of domestic and foreign investors.

As a result, the price of the fruit gardens established in other parts of the Aegean region or the decare sales prices of areas suitable for orchard set up is much higher than the regions we mentioned earlier.

Best Regions For Buying Farmlands in Turkey https://scagriconsult.com

In Manisa and Balıkesir regions, orchards are established on lands allowed for agriculture, on lands with a high slope and slightly hilly areas. It is among the places where you will not have any water supply and irrigation problems.

Konya has one of the cheapest lands

Konya is another province that has rising popularity. The fact that the land prices are affordable and the lands are flat has made it a target point for investors who want to establish an orchard in such an area. Irrigation source is groundwater or state-supported irrigation resources.

In the Marmara Region, Balıkesir, Bursa and Çanakkale are the provinces that are popular in horticulture. Walnut production, one of the popular plants of recent years, is intensive in high altitudes. In the areas located at sea level, hard and pome fruit varieties are produced.

In the Mediterranean Region, intensive fruit growing activities are carried out in Adana, Alanya, and Mersin provinces. Fruit-growing in Mersin and Tarsus regions have gained momentum thanks to the favorable land prices. One of the disadvantages of these regions is that the area is mountainous and sloping.

When you decide where to buy land in Turkey and your targeted product to grow, you can find trusted ag consulting services for assistance to discuss the details.

If you have any thoughts about investing in agricultural lands in Turkey, please do not hesitate to contact us. We can assist you with the most suitable product pattern and region by sharing opinions.

The Farmland Prices in Turkey in 2021 | You Should Know This Before You Buy

Farmland prices in Turkey in 2021 - Consult your agricultural consultant before you make your decision https://scagriconsult.com

Planning to buy agricultural farmland in Turkey brings up the question: How much are the farmland prices in Turkey in 2021?

In recent weeks, the farmland prices spiked in the Thrace region of turkey because of the ‘Microsoft Founder Bill Gates is buying a massive amount of farmlands in the area’ news.

What I’m going to cover today has nothing to with that news, yet it’s true that there is a price increase with the farmlands, especially in western Turkey, with the decent sun, irrigation capacity, and rich soil quality.

if you want to buy agricultural farmland in turkey, you need to have enough information on where you want to invest. Consult your agricultural consultant https://scagriconsult.com
Farmland types in Turkey

When you buy land in Turkey, you can’t just leave it without cultivating or growing something. That was regulated by the law to prevent land banking that has no value in the agricultural industry.
As a result, purchasing farmland brings up more investment requirements with it, depending on where you buy it.
But don’t worry! You will definitely regain your investment with more of it if you care about your plants and farmland, no matter which region you choose.

What are the farmland prices in Turkey in 2021?

The price of agricultural land in Turkey varies, and it has a strong relationship with the region where you want to buy the farmland; if it has already mature, grown-up, trees, or uncultivated land and the distance to the residential areas, main roads.

As the farmland prices vary for the reasons above, I’ll try to clarify the answer in your mind with approximate price ranges, so you’ll not be surprised when you see the land price.

For instance, if you want to buy a grapevine garden in the Manisa region in the west of Turkey, the cost of 1 decare (1000 SQM / 0.98 RO) land is between $5.500 12.000, depending on the accessibility of the land and capacity of the trees.

Other varieties of fruit gardens would cost around $3.500-6000 in the same region, depending on the irrigation capacities.

If you want to buy walnut farmland in Turkey, the price of the land would be between $1700-$5000, depending on the location, whether it’s located on the highlands or an easy-access place.

Buy cheap, buy twice

On the other hand, if you plan to buy land in the Central Anatolia region, say, Konya, one decare farmland will cost around $1.100-2.200.

The biggest reason for the low farmland prices in central Anatolia is the planting variety and irrigation limitations due to the climate.

Don’t be mistaken by buying cheap farmland as soon as you see it. The operation costs might be higher than you expect, especially for setting up irrigation systems such as drilling, and overall cost might be more than the ‘more expensive per decare’ one.

farmland prices in turkey in 2021 are strongly affected by the region and irrigation capacity of the land. Talk to your Agricultural consultant before you buy it https://scagriconsult.com

None of the information above is intended for a financial advice but only for educational purposes. The price ranges might change anytime for any reason after this post is published.

These are the general view of farmland prices in Turkey in 2021. Finding an Agricultural consultant in Turkey for further recommendations, and to research and discussing the alternatives before making your decision might be a better idea. Feel free to contact us with any further questions or check our homepage for our services!

Pruning and Maintenance Work in Fruit Gardens in Turkey

Fruit garden care calendar of turkey. How to care about your plants? https://cagriconsult.com

Maintenance work in fruit gardens in Turkey is an essential process for a healthy garden and maximum yield. This includes but not limited to pruning, fertilization, watering, and disease control, as well as knowing the correct time of the process.
The table below is showing pruning and general maintenance procedures in your orchards. The markings in the table are generally for informational purposes and the application times vary depending on the location of your garden and your region’s climate.

You might also like this: Which fruits grow in Turkey?

In the fertilization program included in the information contained in the maintenance applications, we need to observe the difference between the traditional fertilization and the fertilization application you will do without drip irrigation.

The calendar of maintenance work in fruit gardens

Maintenance work in fruit gardens in Turkey is an essential process for a healthy garden and maximum yield. Fruit garden maintenance calendar of Turkey https://scagriconsult.com
Fruit garden maintenance calendar of Turkey – https://scagriconsult.com

Please do not hesitate to contact us for detailed information and consultancy service.

Are You Eligible To Buy Farmland in Turkey?

Can I buy farmland in turkey? Which country citizens can buy property in Turkey? https://scagriconsult.com?

You might be asking the question, ‘can I buy farmland in Turkey’ if you plan to invest in land, a garden, or a house. 

This only depends on which country citizen you are. So, let’s check if you are eligible to buy a farmland or any other property in Turkey.

Each country in the world has its own foreigner restriction laws regarding owning a property in that country. The reason for this, obviously, historical relations and strategical reasons. 

Turkey is no different than those countries. 

The reciprocity law in Turkey is the main regulatory article to clarify who can buy property in Turkey and who can’t in law no: 35. It was clearly declared ‘list of the countries allowed to buy land and property in Turkey. 

In addition, certain limitations and conditions are also applied to citizens of certain countries about specific types of land and properties in Turkey.

You might like this: Turkey fruit map – Which fruits grow in Turkey?

Can I buy farmland in Turkey?

Are you eligible to buy land in turkey? Here is the information if you can buy farmland or property in Turkey. https://scagriconsult.com
Purchasing a farmland in Turkey

With the updated law of reciprocity of Turkey, the number of countries whose citizens can purchase property in Turkey has been increased from 53 to 129. Now, 52 more country citizens can buy land in Turkey in addition to previous ones; however, specific permissions might be required.

After January 2020, the below conditions are valid for Non-Turkish citizens to buy a property in Turkey.

General Restrictions For All Countries

Total owned property area by foreigners can’t be more than 10% of the surface area of that town,

Total owned area by an individual can’t be more than 30 hectares in overall Turkey (needs court order/permission or to establish a limited company in Turkey, if it exceeds 30 hectares)

The property to buy can’t be in a military zone (court order)

If buying farmland or agricultural field, the buyer must submit and carry out a project related to the farmland max in 2 years to prevent land banking without adding value to the country. 

Besides the mentioned items above, the following country citizens cant buy property in turkey under any circumstances:

Which country citizens cant buy land or property in Turkey?

  • Armenia
  • Nigeria
  • North Korea
  • Syria
  • Cuba
  • Yemen

The following country citizens are allowed to buy a limited number of properties in Turkey

  • Israel
  • China
  • Jordan citizens can buy up to 2 residences and 1 workplace)
  • East Timor
  • Denmark
  • Fiji

The following country citizens have a particular area restriction to buy property in Turkey

  • Russian and Ukrainian citizens are not allowed to purchase land or property on the Black Sea coast of Turkey.
  • Greek citizens are not allowed to buy land or property on the Black Sea coast and in some of the Aegean towns of Turkey.

The former limitations were removed for the following country citizens

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Lebanon
  • Azerbaijan, 
  • Kazakhstan, 
  • Turkmenistan, 
  • Uzbekistan 
  • Kirghistan
  • The UAE
  • Kuwait

Category Restrictions (e.g., restricted to buy farmland) Apply To The Citizens of 31 Countries 

  • Morocco
  • Egypt
  • Latvia
  • Afghanistan
  • Some small African countries
  • Albania (can only purchase residences and workplaces but not agricultural or other types of land)

Those country citizens Need Special Permission From Ministry of Interior Before They Purchase Property in Turkey

  • Iran
  • Palestine
  • Iraq (Need permission from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  • China
  • India

The rest of the countries are allowed to buy land or other types of properties in Tukey without limitations.

Forbidden Zones to purchase a property in Turkey

You cant buy land or property in the military or other restricted zones of Turkey. https://scagriconsult.com

Foreign individuals or companies are not allowed to buy any land or property in Turkey’s military, strategic, or security zones.

The conditions of preservation purposes which restrict building are determined by the Council of Ministers, e.g., lands that have strategic significance for energy, agriculture, mining, archeological site or historical zones, biological or environmental reasons.

Prior to buying, the Land Registry Office (TAPU) is responsible for checking if the property intended to be purchased by a foreigner is within one of these forbidden zones. You can buy the property if the military authorities confirm that the property is outside the security and military zones. 

Which Fruits Grow In Turkey? | Turkey Fruit Growing Map

Fruits to grow in Turkey https://scagriconsult.com

It’s essential to know which fruits grow in Turkey if you’re planning to own farmland and plant your desired products.

Thanks to the climatic differences experienced in different regions of Turkey due to its geographical location, it enables the cultivation of a wide variety of fruits simultaneously.

As a result, it is possible to produce different fruit varieties continuously for about 9 – 10 months in Turkey.
With the increasing interest of domestic and foreign investors in agriculture in recent years, significant steps have been taken to grow products with high added value (such as Walnut, Almond, Plum, etc.) in different regions of our country. Therefore, the business of establishing new garden facilities has dramatically increased.

In the rest of the article, you will see the display of fruit types grown in different regions of Turkey on the map. The main reason for sharing these maps is that it supports our customers’ standpoint who want to invest, establish a garden, and help them eliminate any question or concerns in their minds.

Which fruits grow in Turkey?

The distribution maps of the most preferred and highly profitable fruits in Turkey have been compiled and collected from TUIK data. For more detailed information, please contact us.


Almond production map of Turkey https://scagriconsult.com
Almond producing regions of Turkey

Almond, one of the products with high added value, is advantageous in growing in a water-resistant and stony soil structure. The province with the most increased production is Mersin, where more than 20,000 tons of products are produced. Adiyaman, Manisa, Muğla and Antalya come respectively.


Turkey Fruit Growing Map | Which fruits grow in Turkey? https://scagriconsult.com
Walnut producing regions of Turkey

The history of walnut, which is one of the most popular fruits with the earnings left to its producers in recent years, with commercial varieties does not go back to old times. The American origin variety Chandler maintains its rising trend with the increase in the number of gardens established in our country, especially after 2008, and new facilities continue to be established. The provinces with the highest production are Mersin, Kahramanmaraş, Hakkari, and Bursa, with 10,000 – 15,000 tons.


Fig production regions map of Turkey https://scagriconsult.com
Fig producing regions of Turkey

The fig fruit, one of the shining products of recent years, is the province with the highest production in our country with a production rate of more than 190,000 tons. Respectively, İzmir, Bursa, and Mersin provinces took the top ranks. Aydın is the province where fig, known as the yellow lobe, grows in excellent taste and quality. Although attempts were made to cultivate the yellow lobe in other regions, the desired taste and aroma could not be achieved.


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Chestnut producing Regions in Turkey

Did you know that the main production center of the fruit, which is the raw material of the famous Bursa Chestnut Candy, is Aydın? It ranks at the top with an annual production of more than 30,000 tons. It is respectively followed by İzmir, Bartın, and Kastamonu. The plant, which grows in the highest quality in the mountains of Aydın, has failed to establish a garden facility in the flat plains. It is essential to carry out correct studies and researches for the lands where breeding is planned.


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Cherry producing regions in Turkey

In our country, which is one of the important export products and has one of the most preferred cherry varieties in the world, the most produced provinces with a tonnage between 50.000 and 70.000 tons are Konya, İzmir, Bursa, with a capacity of 30.000 to 50.000 tons, Manisa, Amasya, Isparta, and Afyonkarahisar follows.

Seedless grape

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Seedless grape producing regions in Turkey

Manisa follows the province with the highest cultivation of seedless grape (table or dried) with 1,450,000 tons and Denizli, İzmir, Mersin, and Gaziantep, respectively.

Wine grape

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Wine grape producing regions in Turkey

The province with the highest production of wine grapes is Denizli, with a capacity of more than 90,000 tons. Kilis, İzmir, Elazığ, Çanakkale, Nevşehir, Tekirdağ and Tokat come respectively.